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Articles with nouns

Masculine definite article

  singular - nominative singular - accusative singular - genitive plural - nomimative plural - accusative plural - genitive
Latin ílle íllum illíus ílli íllos illórum
Portuguese   o lobo     os lobos  
Asturian   el llobu     los llobos  
Spanish   el lobo     los lobos  
Catalan   el llop     els llops  
Occitan   lo lop     los lops  
Old French li loups le loup   li loup les loups  
French   le loup     les loups  
Romansh   il luf     ils lufs  
Sardinian   su lupu     sos lupos  
Italian   il lupo   i lupi    
Romanian   lupul lupului lupii   lupilor

Notes:

All languages. Earlier remarks about nouns still apply.

Asturian, Catalan, Occitan, French, Romansh, Italian. The singular article is reduced to l’ before a vowel - Catalan l’amic, Italian l’amico the friend.

Italian. The singular article reduces to l’ before a vowel, while the plural article becomes gli before a vowel - l’atto, gli atti the act, the acts. Also, the singular definite article is lo before z- or a consonant cluster beginning in s-: lo spagnolo.

Sardinian, Balearic Catalan. The definite article comes from Vulgar Latin *issu, not *illu. This gives the characteristic s- versus the l- of most Romance definite articles. The singular article is reduced to s’ before a vowel - Sardinian s’ómine the man.

Romanian. Nouns attach the articles -ul, -ului in the singular and -i, -lor in the plural. Masculine nouns in -e take an article -ele, -elui in the singular instead - câine, câinele, cânelui, câinii, câinilor dog, the dog, of the dog, the dogs, of the dogs.

Masculine indefinite article

  singular - nominative singular - accusative singular - genitive plural - nomimative plural - accusative plural - genitive
Latin únus únum uníus úni únos unórum
Portuguese   um lobo     uns lobos  
Asturian   un llobu     unos llobos  
Spanish   un lobo     unos lobos  
Catalan   un llop     uns llops  
Occitan   un lop     unis lops  
Old French uns loups un loup   un loup uns loups  
French   un loup     des loups  
Romansh   in luf     lufs  
Sardinian   unu lupu     unos lupos  
Italian   un lupo   uni lupi    
Romanian   un lup unui lup unii lupi   unor lupi

Notes:

All languages. The plural indefinite article denotes a group or portion, similar to English some. Most of the Romance languages (apart from French) can simply use the bare noun in the plural.

Old French, French. The plural indefinite article is lost in later Old French. Modern French uses the partitive des - un loup, des loups a wolf, (some) wolves.

Occitan. The partitive de is the preferred plural indefinite article - un lop, de lops a wolf, wolves.

Sardinian. The singular article is reduced to un’ before a vowel - un’ómine a man.

Italian. The singular indefinite article is uno before z- or a consonant cluster beginning in s- - uno spagnolo. Also, like French and Occitan, Italian can use a partitive (masculine dei, feminine delle) - un lupo, dei lupi a wolf, some wolves.

Romansh. Speakers abandon the indefinite article in the plural - in luf, lufs a wolf, wolves.

Feminine definite article

  singular - nominative singular - accusative singular - genitive plural - nomimative plural - accusative plural - genitive
Latin ílla íllam illíus íllae íllas illárum
Portuguese   a lista     as listas  
Asturian   la llista     les llistes  
Spanish   la lista     las listas  
Catalan   la llista     les llistes  
Occitan   la lista     las listas  
Old French la liste la liste   les listes les listes  
French   la liste     les listes  
Romansh   la glista     las glistas  
Sardinian   sa lista     sas listas  
Italian   la lista   le liste    
Romanian   lista listei listele   listelor

Notes:

Asturian, Catalan, Occitan, French, Romansh, Italian. The singular article is reduced to l’ before a vowel - Catalan l’aigua, Emiliano-Romagnolo l’aqua the water.

Sardinian, Balearic Catalan. The singular article comes from *issa, not *illa. It gets reduced to s’ before a vowel - Sardinian s’abba, Balearic s’aigua the water.

Romanian. The definite article is attached after the noun endings - cunună, cununi, cununa, cununile wreath, wreaths, the wreath, the wreaths.

Feminine indefinite article

  singular - nominative singular - accusative singular - genitive plural - nomimative plural - accusative plural - genitive
Latin úna únam uníus únae únas unárum
Portuguese   uma lista     umas listas  
Asturian   una llista     unes llistes  
Spanish   una lista     unas listas  
Catalan   una llista     unes llistes  
Occitan   una lista     unes listas  
Old French une liste une liste   unes listes unes listes  
French   une liste     des listes  
Romansh   ina glista     glistas  
Sardinian   una lista     unas listas  
Italian   una lista   une liste    
Romanian   o listă unei liste unele liste   unor liste

Notes:

All languages. General remarks about the masculine indefinite article apply.

Romansch, Sardinian, Italian. The feminine article is reduced before a noun beginning in a vowel - Italian un’amica, Romansh in’amia a [female] friend.

Neuter definite article

  singular - nominative singular - accusative singular - dative plural - nomimative plural - accusative plural - dative
Latin íllud íllum illíus ílla íllas illórum
Asturian   lo        
Spanish   lo        
Romansh   il fier     la fiera  
Italian   il ferro   le ferra    
Romanian   fierul fierului fiarele   fiarelor

Notes:

All languages. The modern languages treat Latin neuter nouns like masculine nouns. Earlier remarks about neuter nouns still apply.

Asturian, Spanish. Neuter forms occur only in the singular - their plurals are masculine. The neuter definite article is commonly used with masculine adjectives - Spanish lo importante the important (thing), Asturian lo bono the good (thing). The parallel construction in most Romance languages contains a masculine article.

Rhaeto-Romansh, Italian. Neuter forms are used for grouped or paired nouns. These nouns often have a parallel masculine plural - il braccio, le braccia, i bracci the arm, the (pair of) arms, the (multiple ungrouped) arms versus l’uovo, le uova (rather than *gli uovi) the egg, the eggs.

Romanian. Neuter nouns and their definite articles are treated like masculine singular forms in the singular and feminine plural forms in the plural.

Neuter indefinite article

  singular - nominative singular - accusative singular - dative plural - nomimative plural - accusative plural - dative
Latin únum únum uníus úna úna unórum
Romanian   un fier unui fier unele fiare   unelor fiare

Notes:

All languages. General remarks about the masculine indefinite article apply.

Romanian. Neuter indefinite articles have masculine singular forms in the singular and feminine plural forms in the plural.

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