Writing Aramaic

Pages in the "Writing Aramaic" lesson series:

  • Introduction (current page) - learn the basic square & cursive alphabets, various letter forms, and how to write & identify simple words.
  • Early Aramaic - learn to read & write the chiseled, monumental Aramaic seen on inscriptions from the earliest period. This is the parent of both the square and cursive scripts.
  • Square Scripts - learn to write & read the Aramaic square alphabet (later borrowed to write Hebrew) from Imperial Aramaic through to forms found in Jewish texts to modern Judeo-Aramaic.
  • Cursive scripts - learn to read & write a range of cursive scripts, from inscriptions in Edessa through to forms found in Christian manuscripts to modern Eastern & Western Assyrian.

Learning to write Aramaic on this page

This lesson introduces the major strains of written Aramaic: cursive script vs. square script. The two writing styles represent two separate traditions that come from one common early script.

We will study the alphabet & pronunciation, how to combine letters into words, and how to write vowels. You may choose between the square or cursive script, or even learn both!

  1. Basic square alphabet
  2. Different letter forms in the square ("Hebrew") script
  3. Vowels in the square script
  4. Basic cursive alphabet
  5. Different letter forms in the cursive ("Estrangelo") script
  6. Vowels in the cursive script
  7. Final questions / FAQ
  8. Answers to the activities

Basics of the Sqaure Script

Introduction & background

This script is named for the detached, square style of its letters. The square script developed out of the earliest Aramaic alphabet. It reached a a standard form around 2500 years ago in its "Imperial" period, when Aramaic became the administrative language of the ancient Persian Empire.

The square script was borrowed for writing Hebrew in the 5th century BCE, so the Hebrew alphabet actually comes from the Aramaic. (Before this, Hebrew as written in the Paleo-Hebrew script.) It also remained the alphabet of choice for Jewish Aramaic throughout history, from the Dead Sea Scrolls to modern ketubot (marriage contracts) and Neo-Aramaic dialects.

If the characters do not show up properly below, here are some resources for displaying this script.

The alphabet

Letter Name Pronunciation IPA
א 'alaph like the "catch" in uh-oh /ʔ/
ב beth "b" /b/
ג gammal "g" /g/
ד dalat "d" /d/
ה he "h" /h/
ו waw "w" /w/
ז zayin "z" /z/
ח et hard "h" - root of tongue against back of throat /ħ/ or /x/
ט et (t`et) "t" with an `ayin sound /tʕ/
י yudh "y" /j/
כ kaph as in skin /k/
ל lammadh "l" /l/
מ mim "m" /m/
נ nun "n" /n/
ס semkath "s" /s/
ע `ayin push bottom of tongue against back of throat, with voice /ʕ/
פ pe as in spin /p/
צ adhe (s`adhe) "s" with an `ayin sound /sʕ/
ק qoph like "k", but further back /q/
ר resh lightly trilled "r" /r/
ש shin "sh" /ʃ/
ת taw as in stay /t/

Simple words

You read and write this script from right to left. Each letter follows a letter to its right.

פחד ←
read: paad

At its core, the Aramaic alphabet only represents consonants. In other words, the language is wrttn lk ths!

paḥad (p-ḥ-d) פחד ←
zhar (z-h-r) זהר

"Consonant writing" (consonant-only writing) works somewhat well for Aramaic. Like other Semitic languages, content words in Aramaic are built out of three-consonant or four-consonant "roots". Issues still arise, and a way of representing vowels emerged to clarify important texts and help beginning learners.

Practice Exercise: Square Script 1

You will find answers to this and every activity in the answers to the exercises at the bottom of this page.

How do you write these words in the square script? Select and write down the square script word that matches each transliteration.

  1. malka - a) צףלב , b) מלכא , c) מעלא
  2. shbaṭ - a) סהכט , b) צנת , c) שבט
  3. ngad - a) נגד , b) גרז , c) מעד
  4. psal - a) פסל , b) פצל , c) קשל
  5. tqal - a) תכל , b) טכל , c) תקל
  6. `eber - a) עבר , b) אכד , c) יבר
  7. hadar - a) חדר , b) הדר , c) חרד

Different Letter Forms in the Square Script

Aramaic sometimes has different ways of writing the same letter. To get a feel for these differences, first think of the three places a letter can be written within a word:

w-or-d (beginning - middle - end)

At the end of words


Five square letters actually have a different final form when they occur at the end of a word.

The table below contextualizes these letter variants, placing them at the end of Aramaic words. Use it to compare these letters in their basic (initial/medial) and word-final forms.

Letter Example Word Consonants & Transcription
כ (kap) שמך shmak (sh-m-k)
מ (mim) גשם geshem (g-sh-m)
נ (nun) תמן tamān (t-m-n)
פ (pe) כתף ktap (k-t-p)
צ (ṣade) דוץ duṣ (d-w-ṣ)

No other letters have distinct final forms. The other letters look the same in every position.

At the beginning & middle of words

The square letters keep their basic shape whenever they're written at the beginning or in the middle of a word. There are no special "initial" or "medial" forms of letters.

Practice Exercise: Square Script 2

How do you write the following words in the square script? Write in the "right" direction, pay attention to each letter, and watch out for different final forms!

  1. magal
  2. laban
  3. pgam
  4. sgap
  5. qder
  6. shḥaq
  7. krak
  8. klam

Vowels in the Square Script

Basics of Aramaic Vowels

Aramaic has three major vowel types: a-like vowels, i-like vowels and u-like vowels. There are also two lengths: long vowels and short vowels. The pronunciation of specific vowels differs among dialects, but this basic set will help you understand the shape and use of Aramaic vowels:

Short Long pronunciation
a ā maybe as in hat or father
i ī something like in sit or sing
u ū similar to rude

Long vowels traditionally had the quality of the short vowels, but were simply held out longer. Later Aramaic dialects tend to emphasize vowel quality (the "sound" of a vowel) over quantity (the time length of a vowel).

So how would you write vowels in a script composed entirely of consonants? Consider two options:

1) Use special marks (like accent marks/diacritics) to indicate vowels.
2) Extend the use of one or more consonant letters so that they also represent vowels.

Aramaic scribes took both options. Option #2 - extending the use of existing letters - was the earliest and most pervasive, leading to a simple system of matres lectionis "mothers of reading" (since they help you read words more accurately). Option #1 is more technical, and has been applied in both important texts for careful readers (like religious works) and beginners' texts (such as language lessons).

Letters of the Alphabet as Vowels: Matres lectionis

As mentioned above, some letters now represent vowels as well as consonants. These dual-use letters are called matres lectionis or just matres. The square script has four such letters.

Letter Example Word Transliteration
א ('alaph) לא lā
ה (hē) מידה mīdā
י (yudh) מידה mī
ו (waw) לוזא lū

Each mater only stands for certain vowels. א alap and ה hē typically represent "a" or "e". As a mater, י yud represents "i" or long "e". The mater ו waw represents either "u" or "o".

Also, matres typically stand for long vowels. Notice that all the matres are long vowels in the table above.

Special Marks for Vowels: Vowel Pointing

The square script may also be written with vowel marks above or below the letters. The details of this system make it complex, but the basics are very easy to understand: place certain dots above or below a letter to represent certain vowels. Notice that some vowels are represented by the combination of a mater + pointing:

Vowel Pointing Example word Description
a פגַם pgam line under consonant
ā לָבָן lābān line + dash under consonant
e גֶשֶם geshem three dots under consonant
ē קדֵר qdēr two dots under consonant
i מִדָה midā dot under consonant
ī כִיסנִין kīsnīn dot under consonant + yud
ō עוֹפָא `ōpā waw with dot above
ū לוּז lūz waw with dot beside

Of course, Aramaic also has a way to show that a consonant is followed by no vowel at all. Two vertical dots beneath a letter represent a "silent" vowel. In other words, a consonant with two vertical dots below it is immediately followed by another consonant in pronunciation.

kval (k-ba-l) כְבַל
(kap + silent mark = k) + (bet + line = ba) + (lammad) = kbal

A small dot called dagesh sometimes sits inside a letter. Dagesh is not a vowel. It indicates that the consonant is hard. "Hard" consonants are pronounced as stops, "soft" consonants as plosives. This applies to beth ([b] ~ [v]), gammal ([g] ~ [ɣ]), dalath ([d] ~ [ð]), kaph ([k] ~ [x]), pe ([p] ~ [f]) and taw ([t] ~ [θ]).

kval כְּבַל
("k" with dagesh = hard [k]; "b" without dagesh = soft [v])
kthaph כְּתַף
("k" with dagesh = hard [k]; "t" without dagesh = soft [θ]; "p" without dagesh = soft [f])

The same symbol (dagesh) signals that a consonant is doubled. Doubled consonants occur in the middle of a word and are held out about twice as long.

lammadh למּד
("m" with dagesh = double [mm])

Practice Exercise: Square Script 3

How do I read these Aramaic words? Choose the answer that contains the correct vowels.

  1. פושכא - a) pishkā , b) pāshkā , c) pūshkā
  2. זבינא - a) zbīnā , b) zebnā , c) zabanī
  3. לוֹצָא - a) lōṣā , b) lūṣā , c) lwiṣā
  4. טִילוּרא - a) teyalūra , b) tīlūrā , c) tilwarā
  5. סְגַר - a) sagār , b) sgar , c) sāgar
  6. סוּסְיָא - a) sūsī'ā , b) swaseyā , c) sūsyā
  7. נְטוּפָא - a) nṭūpā , b) nūṭpā , c) neṭūpā

Basics of the Estrangelo Cursive Script

Background

The partially connected letters of this script developed over 2,000 years ago from the earlier Aramaic alphabet. Its handwritten form resembles the Arabic script, which is in its own way a grandchild of this Aramaic writing system.

The cursive Estrangelo (or Estrangela) hand has long been used to write Syriac (Assyrian Aramaic), including well-preserved ancient manuscripts of the New Testament and other Christian writings.

If the following characters do not display properly, these resources may help you see the script.

Cursive Alphabet

Letter Name Pronunciation IPA
ܐ 'alap like the "catch" in uh-oh /ʔ/
ܒ bet "b" /b/
ܓ gamal "g" /g/
ܕ dalat "d" /d/
ܗ he "h" /h/
ܘ waw "w" /w/
ܙ zain "z" /z/
ܚ et hard "h" sound - root of tongue against throat /ħ/ or /x/
ܛ et (t`et) "t" with an `ayin sound /tʕ/
ܝ yud "y" /j/
ܟ kap as in skin /k/
ܠ lamad "l" /l/
ܡ mim "m" /m/
ܢ nun "n" /n/
ܣ semkat "s" /s/
ܥ `ayin push bottom of tongue against back of throat, with voice /ʕ/
ܦ pe as in spin /p/
ܨ ade (s`ade) "s" with an `ayin sound /sʕ/
ܩ qop like "k", but further back /q/
ܪ resh lightly trilled "r" /r/
ܫ shin "sh" /ʃ/
ܬ taw as in stay /t/

Simple words

You write & read this script from the right to the left. Each letter follows a letter to its right.

ܟܬܒ ←
read: ktab

At its heart, the Aramaic alphabets only represent consonants. This means that the Aramaic language is wrttn lk ths!

ktab (k-t-b) ܟܬܒ ←
ketbat (k-t-b-t) ܟܬܒܬ
mkaka (m-k-k-') ܡܟܟܐ

Syriac writing refrains from representing double consonants (a repeated or lengthened consonant). Two of the same letters back-to-back tend to fall into separate syllables. However, such letters can also represent a "triple consonant".

gadda (g-d-') ܓܕܐ ←
mkaka (m-k-k-') ܡܟܟܐ
'attta ('-t-t-') ܐܬܬܐ

Consonant-only writing works rather well for Aramaic. As in other Semitic languages, content words are built from three-consonant or four-consonant "roots". Problems still arise, and a way of indicating vowels emerged to clarify important texts and help unfamiliar learners.

Connecting Letters: Ligatures

The trickiest aspect of the cursive script involves ligatures between letters. Only certain letters connect to a following letter on their left. Some letters only connect on the right (to previous letters), while others connect on both sides (both to previous & following letters).

ṭaba ܛܒܐ
(the letter ܒ "b" connects on the left and the right)

gazza ܓܙܐ
(the letter ܙ "z" only connects on the right)

Practice Exercise: Cursive Script 1

Find the answers to this and every activity in the answers to the exercises at the bottom of this page.

How do you write these words in the Estrangela script? Choose the cursive script word that matches each transliteration, then rewrite the word for practice.

  1. malka - a) ܡܠܐܟ , b) ܡܛܠܐ , c) ܡܠܟܐ
  2. qat - a) ܩܬ , b) ܘܬ , c) ܩܛ
  3. dawe - a) ܪܘ , b) ܕܘܐ , c) ܪܘܐ
  4. galma - a) ܓܡܠܐ , b) ܓܓܡܐ , c) ܓܠܡܐ
  5. saqalta - a) ܣܩܠܬ , b) ܣܩܐܠ , c) ܣܬܩܠܬܐ
  6. had - a) ܚܕ , b) ܗܕ , c) ܗܝܕ
  7. pawar - a) ܦܒܪ , b) ܦܘܕ , c) ܦܘܪ

Different Letter Forms in the Cursive Script

Assyrian Aramaic often has different ways of writing the same letter. To understand these differences, start by imagining the three places a letter can occur within a word:

w-or-d (beginning - middle - end)

Different middle letter forms


As I mentioned above, some letters in the cursive Estrangelo script connect to the letters that follow, while others do not. This distinction impacts letters in the middle of a word, or "medial letter forms". Notice that some letters look different when they're in the middle of a word.

It's not hard to see which letters connect to the following letter and which do not. If a letter ends in a stroke coming from its left side, sitting on the line of text, then it connects. Letters that end in a loop or a stroke above/below the line do not connect on the left.

The table below puts each letter of the Syriac alphabet in context. Notice the letters that do and do not connect when placed in the middle of a word.

Letter Example word Transcription Ligatures
ܐ ܠܐܒܐ lebe right only
ܒ ܛܒܐ ṭābā right & left
ܓ ܚܓܐ ḥagā right & left
ܕ ܓܕܐ gaddā right only
ܗ ܦܗܝܘܬܐ pahayūtā right only
ܘ ܣܘܝܚܘܬܐ swīḥūtā right only
ܙ ܓܙܐ gazzā right only
ܚ ܫܝܚܐ shyaḥā right & left
ܛ ܒܛܐ beṭā right & left
ܝ ܫܝܚܐ shyaḥā right & left
ܟ ܡܟܟܐ mkakā right & left
ܠ ܒܠܐ balā right & left
ܡ ܫܡܐ shemmā right & left
ܢ ܫܢܐ shenā right & left
ܣ ܡܣܐ messā right & left
ܥ ܝܥܐ ya`ā right & left
ܦ ܣܦܐ seppā right & left
ܨ ܥܨܐ `eṣā right only
ܩ ܛܩܐ ṭaqā right & left
ܪ ܦܪܓܐ pragā right only
ܫ ܚܫܐ ḥashā right & left
ܬ ܐܦܬܐ 'aptā right only

Letters that start with a downward stroke when written disconnected start with an upward stroke when attached within the middle of a word.

Writing dalet: with downstroke (when alone) and upstroke (when connected to previous letter).
gaddā ܓܕܐ vs. dag ܕܓ

Different final letter forms


Most final letters don't differ very much from their basic and medial forms. Letters that end on the line may be given a slight "swoosh" or "tail".

kūl ܟܘܠ vs. ܠܐ
(slight upturn on final ܠ lamad)

Letters that don't connect on the left will not change shape, since they always end in a "final" stroke.

ܡܘ (final waw looks the same)
ܠܐ (final alap looks the same)
etc.

The letters kap, mim and nun look quite different at the end of a word versus at the beginning/middle.

Letter Normal form example Final form example
ܟܟ ܠܟܐ ܒܟ
lakkā bāk
ܡܡ ܠܡܕ ܠܐܙܡ
lamad lāzem
ܢܢ ܫܢܐ ܫܝܢ
shenā shīn

Different initial letter forms

Syriac letters keep their basic shapes at the beginning of a word. Notice, however, that letters do not include the connective ligatures at the beginning of words.

gabā ܓܒܐ vs. bet ܒܬ
(line on right side of medial ܒ bet; no line on right side of initial ܒ)

Practice Exercise: Cursive Script 2

Write each of the following Aramaic words in the Estrangelo script. Write from right to left, pay attention to ligatures, and don't forget unique letter forms.

  1. dīk
  2. dān
  3. ḥām
  4. selqat
  5. hāmān
  6. sepāresh
  7. qālāt

Vowels in the Cursive Script

Basics of Vowels in Aramaic

Aramaic has three fundamental vowel groups: a-type vowels, i-type vowels and u-type vowels. Aramaic also distinguishes two lengths: long vowels & short vowels. Vowel pronunciation will differ between dialects, but this basic distinction helps you understand the shape of Aramaic vowels:

Short Long pronunciation
a ā like hat or father
i ī perhaps in sit or sing
u ū as in rude

Traditionally, long vowels sounded like short vowels held out longer. Syriac Aramaic now contrasts vowel quality (the "sound" of a vowel) more than quantity (the time a vowel is held out).

Think for a moment - how would you write vowels in a writing system made up only of consonants? Here are two possibilites:

1) Use unique marks (accent marks/diacritics) to represent the vowels.
2) Extend the use of the letters so that some of them can also stand for vowels.

Aramaic scribes settled on both options. Option #2 - extending the use of existing letters - was the earliest and most pervasive, leading to a simple system of matres lectionis "mothers of reading" (since they help you read words more accurately). Option #1 is more technical, and has been applied in both important texts for careful readers (like religious works) and beginning texts (like language lessons).

Letters of the Alphabet as Vowels: Matres lectionis

Some letters have come to represent vowels as well as consonants. These multi-use letters are given the name matres lectionis or just matres. The Assyrian script has three matres, one for each group of vowels introduced above (a-i-u).

Letter Example Word Transliteration
ܐ (alap) ܡܠܟܐ malkā
ܝ (yud) ܫܝܢ shīn
ܘ (waw) ܟܘܠ kūl

Each mater tends to stand for certain vowels. ܐ alap represents either "a" or "e". The mater ܝ yud represents "i". ܘ waw represents either "u" or "o".

The mater ܐ alap is especially versatile. When written at the end of a word, it shows that the word ends in some vowel. This vowel is often (but not always) an "a" sound.

malkā ܡܠܟܐ
peshā ܦܫܐ
ܙܐ

Matres are associated with long vowels. In the table above, notice that all the matres stand for long vowels.

Special Marks for Vowels: Vowel Pointing

The cursive script often includes vowel marks above or below the letters. We'll leave aside the complexities of vowel pointing. The basics are very straightforward: place certain dots above or below a letter to represent certain vowels. Note that some long vowels are written with the combination of a mater and pointing:

Vowel Pointing Example word Description
a ܐܲܒܵܐ 'abbā one dot above + one dot below consonant
ā ܐܲܒܵܐ 'abbā two dots above consonant
e/ē ܙܹܒܠܵܐ zeblā two dots below consonant
i/ī ܫܝܼܢ shīn yud with dot below
ō ܩܘܿܦ qōp waw with dot above
ū ܟܘܼܠ kūl waw with dot below

When a consonant is followed immediately by another consonant, and not a vowel, it is "bare". That means the consonant takes no pointers.

(zē-b-lā-') ܙܹܒܠܵܐ
(zayin + two dots below) + (bēt without pointers) + (lamed + two dots above) + (mater alep) = zēblā

Practice Exercise: Cursive Script 3

Select the transcription that matches each Aramaic word. Pay close attention to the vowels!

  1. ܫܘܪܓܠܐ - a) shūrgāl , b) shūrgālā , c) shwaragal
  2. ܟܸܬܒܲܬ - a) ketabat , b) katbat , c) ketbat
  3. ܢܸܓܒܵܐ - a) negbā , b) nagbā , c) nagbe
  4. ܚܕܵܢܵܐܝܬ - a) ḥdānāyāt , b) ḥdānā'it , c) ḥādānayt
  5. ܝܲܫܬܵܐ - a) yāshtā , b) yishtā , c) yashtā
  6. ܬܵܝܠ - a) tāyl , b) tayil , c) tyal
  7. ܦܘܼܩܵܐ - a) pōqā , b) pwaqā , c) pūqā

Extra Challenge

Oops! I forgot to translate these Aramaic words for you! Translate every single Aramaic word on this page (at least in the script you're learning). Here's how you'll do it:

  1. Look up every single word. Use this online Talmudic dictionary for square script words and this online Syriac dictionary for cursive script words.
  2. Write down each word three or more times
  3. Write the translation next to each word.
  4. Be patient. You're learning, so this will take time!

Final questions & FAQ

What's the difference between Hebrew and Aramaic? What about Aramaic and Arabic?

As spoken languages, Hebrew and Aramaic are siblings. In fact, Aramaic, Arabic & Hebrew are all Central Semitic languages. Current consensus links Hebrew and Aramaic more closely together, and Arabic in a separate sub-branch of Central Semitic. As far as their writing systems, Hebrew scribes borrowed the square script of Imperial Aramaic, and Aramaic has remained an important language for Hebrew speakers throughout history. In their turn, Arabic speakers borrowed an Aramaic script, this time an offshoot of the Assyrian cursive system.

But Aramaic isn't the fountainhead of the historical borrowing and evolution of Middle Eastern scripts. The Early Aramaic abjad itself evolved from the Phoenician system, which was roughly modeled on certain logographs from the Ancient Egyptian system.

How do I pronounce Aramaic?

I admit that I glossed over pronunciation differences between the dialects. Written Aramaic is ancient, fairly uniform and ignores many pronunciation differences. Still, you'll find noticeable differences between dialects. There are also pronunciation differences between modern Aramaic and historical forms of the language. Fortunately, most of the sound correspondences between dialects are regular. For instance, the long vowel "ā" consistently sounds like the /ɑ/ of father in Eastern Assyrian but like /o/ in Western Assyrian Aramaic.

I've been looking at old manuscripts & inscriptions, and the Aramaic looks different. How come I still can't read this language?

Good for you, and keep practicing! There are many ways of writing the Aramaic abjad (consonant alphabet), but they all derive from the same early Aramaic writing system. You can dig deeper into these scripts by visiting my lesson pages on the square script, the cursive script and the early epigraphic script. There you can learn about the historical development of & variations within each script, and you'll get your hands dirty with real examples of the scripts.

How can I learn Aramaic pronunciation and grammar?

If you want to learn Aramaic, you have to start by deciding which form of the language you'll study. Syriac/Assyrian Aramaic? Targumic? Palestinian Aramaic? A modern Aramaic dialect? There are a variety of resources on and off the internet to support your studies. Start by looking at the menu on the top right of this page.

If you have a more general interest in comparative Semitic languages & linguistics, you can easily get your hands on good material for Hebrew & Arabic. From there, you'll have a good foundation for Aramaic and a wider view of its immediate language family.

Answers to the practice exercises

Practice Exercise: Square Script 1

  1. malka: c) מעלא
  2. shbaṭ: c) שבט
  3. ngad: a) נגד
  4. psal: a) פסל
  5. tqal: c) תקל
  6. `eber: a) עבר
  7. hadar: b) הדר

Practice Exercise: Square Script 2

  1. magal: מגל
  2. laban: לבן
  3. pgam: פגם
  4. sgap: סגף
  5. qder: קדר
  6. shḥaq: שחק
  7. krak: כרך
  8. klam: כלם

Practice Exercise: Square Script 3

  1. פושכא: c) pūshkā
  2. זבינא: a) zbīnā
  3. לוֹצָא: a) lōṣā
  4. טִילוּרא: b) tīlūrā
  5. סְגַר: b) sgar
  6. סוּסְיָא: c) sūsyā
  7. נְטוּפָא : a) nṭūpā

Practice Exercise: Cursive Script 1

  1. malka: c) ܡܠܟܐ
  2. qat: a) ܩܬ
  3. dawe: b) ܕܘܐ
  4. galma: c) ܓܠܡܐ
  5. saqalta: a) ܣܩܠܬ
  6. had: b) ܗܕ
  7. pawar: c) ܦܘܪ

Practice Exercise: Cursive Script 2

  1. dīk: ܕܝܟ
  2. dān: ܕܢ
  3. ḥām: ܚܡ
  4. selqat: ܣܠܩܬ
  5. hāmān: ܗܡܢ
  6. sepāresh: ܣܦܪܫ
  7. qālāt: ܩܠܬ

Practice Exercise: Cursive Script 3

  1. ܫܘܪܓܠܐ: b) shūrgālā
  2. ܟܸܬܒܲܬ: c) ketbat
  3. ܢܸܓܒܵܐ: a) negbā
  4. ܚܕܵܢܵܐܝܬ: b) ḥdānā'it
  5. ܝܲܫܬܵܐ: c) yashtā
  6. ܬܵܝܠ: a) tāyl
  7. ܦܘܼܩܵܐ: c) pūqā